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Endorse this journal. Reviews Review contents for Journal of Medical Toxicology and Clinical Forensic Medicine are not publicly displayed on Publons, in accordance with their editorial policy. It begins hrs after death and takes further hrs to develop. It may also begin in hrs. Usually it lasts for hrs in winter and hrs in summer. Cadaveric spasm : It occurs specially in cases of sudden death, excitement, fear, severe pain, exhaustion, cerebral hemorrhage, injury to nervous system, firearm wound of the head, conversant, poison etc.

It is the process by which the complex nitrogenous substances in the body are converted into simpler one by the action of photolytic enzymes of the tissue and living saprophytic microorganisms. It is the surest sign of death. It is the modification of putrefaction in which the body fat is converted into a brown waxy like substance occurs in bodies submerged under the water or buried in a moist grave or water lodged soil.

It is the drying of the body tissue due to rapid dehydration of the body in a dry or hot climate preserving the natural appearance of the body. Death is said to be sudden or unexpected when a person not known to have been suffering from any dangerous disease , injury or poisoning is found dead or dies within 24 hrs after the onset of terminal illness. It may be defined as disruption or dissolution of the anatomical continuity of the tissue out of the body irrespective of breach of continuity of skin because of blunt trauma.

It is defined as any harm what so ever illegally cause to any person in body, mind, reputation or property. Penetrating wound. It is a destruction of the skin, which usually involves the superficial layers of the epidermis only. It is defined as subcutaneous rupture of blood vessels and effusion of blood into the tissue, caused by blunt trauma. It is the splitting or tearing of the skin by blunt impact and occurs most commonly over bony prominences where the skin is crushed and split against the bone.

It is a clean cut through the tissue caused by a weapon with a sharp cutting edge and its length is greater than the depth. It is whatever the causes bodily pain, disease on infirmity is said to cause hurt. It is neither serious nor complicated and heals up easily without leaving permanent disfiguration or deformity. Produced from penetration of pointed instrument such as knife, dagger etc.

Injuries occur at various parts of the body. So they are classified as regional injuries according to site of injuries for better investigation and description. Fracture of facial bones can also occur, e. It is a space occupying lesion. Continuous intracranial hemorrhage is known as apoplexy. It is generally found in pathological states. Medico legal relevance: Concussion may be followed post-concuss ional state like headache, dizziness, nervousness, retrograde amnesia, nausea, vomiting, insomnia, mental irritability and automatism.

Clinical Forensic Medicine: A Physician's Guide, 3rd Edition

It is a clinical condition, in which there is diffuse injury of the axons with immediate loss of consciousness and coma for more than 6 hours. Cerebral Edema: This is most common cause of raised intracranial pressure. It is found in intracranial injuries. FIREARM : A firearm is an instrument or device with which it is possible to propel a projectile by the expensive force of gases generated as a result of combustion of the propellant in a closed space.

Primer: Chemical mixture used for detonation of the gunpowder. Narrow spiral grooves running through whole length of the barrel. It provides the bullets spinning motion. This spiral motion helps bullet to overcome the air resistance and as well as more penetrating power. Some smooth barreled guns have narrowing at the distal end of their barrel near the muzzle.

This is called choking.

Forensic Medicine – SZMC

This prevents spreading of pellets as they leave the barrel. Margin of the skin-charred; abraded border usually soiled with powder residue. Single irregular circular aperture 2. Bomb : It is container filled with explosive mixture and missiles, which is fired by either detonator or fuse. Effects of bomb blast. These are acts of illegal intercourse with a second person or with an animal to obtain sexual gratification.

Section , Penal code. It is the anal intercourse between two males or between a male and a female. It is also called buggery. It can be homosexual or heterosexual in nature and any degree of penetration just into the anal margin is punishable by law and proof of Emission Is not required. When the act is performed with the consent of the passive agent, both are liable for punishment, but only the active agent is punished when the offence is committed without consent. General Procedure of Passive agent examination:.

The routine medical examination of the passive agent of sodomy should be carried out as is done in an alleged case of rape. The specific history of the passive agent should include:. Sexual Perversions are persistently indulged sexual acts or fantasies in which complete satisfaction is sought and obtained without sexual intercourse.

The perverted behavior is usually a repulsive and cruel form of tension release under the act of compulsion. Mental state of the accused should be determined in all such cases by a psychiatrist. Here murder serves as stimulus for the sexual act, the act being accompanied by erection, ejaculation and orgasm.

This is the use of objects to obtain an orgasm; the object being a part of the body of a woman or some article belonging to her such as thongs, underwear, brassiere, G-strings, etc.

Forensic medicine, its tasks and duties in medical malpractice and medico-legal litigation.

This behavior is seen almost exclusively in males. Sexual gratification by fingering, fondling, licking, nibbling, etc.

Unorthodox sexplay by using objects or parts of the body. All parts of the plant, male or female, contain the active material, except stem, root and seeds. Larger dose:. Fatal dose : Charas 2 g. How opium is collected? The unripe capsule is incised and the white juice which exudes is collected and allowed to evaporate to obtain crude opium. Fatal Dose : Opium 2 g morphine 0. Signs and symptoms:. Stage of Excitement : Increase sense of well-being, increased mental activity, freedom from anxiety, talkativeness, restlessness, hallucinations.

Stage of stupor : Headache, vomiting, incapacity of exertion, giddiness and drowsiness. Stage of coma : Deep coma, muscles are flaccid and relaxed and all reflexes are abolished. Study of Strychnus Nux Vomica:. Strychnine Kuchila is a powerful alkaloid obtained from the seeds of strychnous nux vomica and other species of strychnous. Fruit is round, hard, slightly rough, glossy arrange with jelly white or pale yellow pulp.

It has seeds. The seeds contain two principal alkaloids- strychnine and brucine. Strychnine occurs on colorless, odorless, poison having an intensely bitter taste. Action : It competitively blocks ventral horn motor neuron post ganglionic receptor sites in the spinal cord and prevents the effects of glycine. Nerium odorum:. Nerium odorum white oleander, kaner grows wild in India.

Flowers usually fragment.

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All parts of the plant including the nectar is poisonous, containing severalcardiac glycosides. The nector yields poisonous honey. The plant is occasionally a source of contact dermatitis. Emanations from flowers, especially when fading cause headache, dizziness, respiratory difficulty and nausea. Ingestion causes ingestion causes difficulty in swallowing and articulation, abdominal pain, vomiting, profuse forthy salivation diarrhoea.

Pulse is first slow and later rapid and weak, blood pressure falls, pupils are dilated. Fatal dose: 15 to 20 g. Treatment: 1 Stomach wash. Medico-legal importance:. Cerbera Thevetia:. All parts of cerbera thevetia yellow oleander; pila kaner are poisonous. The flowers are large and bell-shaped and yellow. Fruit is globular, contains a single nut. Each nut contains five pale yellow seeds.

All active principles are glycosides. Milky juice exudes from all parts of the plant. Sings and symptoms:. Chewing the bark or seed kernel causes a slight numbing sensation and feeling of heat in the mouth and purging. Ingestion causes pain in the mouth, dryness of throat, tingling and numbness of tongue, vomiting, diarrhoea, headache, giddiness, dilated pupil. Fatal dose: 8 to 10 seeds: 15 to 20 g, of roots 5 to 10 leaves.

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Treatment: 1 wash out the stomach. Use of antivenin and other antitoxic therapy. Prevention of spread of venom :. Application of tourniquet or firm pressure over the bitten area. Antitoxic therapy :.

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General measures:. Synonyms of puffer fish are blow fish, swellfish, ballonfish, bubblefish, potkafish, fugu. Puffer fish contains tetrodotoxin. Tetrodotoxin is one of the most powerful neurotoxin to man. Toxin blocks the sodium channels in the nervous tissue, ultimately paralyzing the muscle tissue. Abdominal pain, diaphoresis, general malaise, weakness, hypotension, cardiac arrhythmia, cranial nerve dysfunction.

Report on Department of Forensic Medicine. Medical etiquette: It is the laws of conventional courtesy observed between the members of medical profession. Onset within half an hour of ingestion. Headache, dysphagia, dysarthia, vomiting 5. Consciousness may be retained throughout the illness. Death may occur due to respiratory paralysis or cardiovascular collapse. No definite treatment is known.