The part-VI says about qualification and duties of teachers. The part-VII discusses on curriculum and completion of elementary education. The part-VIII deals with protection of the right of children. The last part describes miscellaneous issues of the Act. In fact, the spirit of the Government of Jharkhand rule as regards to free elementary education is same like that of the Right to Education Act, It includes issues in relation to the implementation of rules in local conditions.
Mohalik, R. The study found that i Kumar, V. Paikaray, L.
Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009 (Right to Education Act)
Bhattacharya, D. Bajpai, B. The study found that development of elementary education is highly affected by progress and implementation of the RTE Act, The study found that the awareness among the people in this Act was very low. Capacity development is required at various levels to operationalize the Act.
The study found that more than half of the objectives of Right to Education Act are implemented. Some objectives are not achieved due to some problems like lack of proper finance, communication facility, lack of proper management, leadership etc. If positive measures are taken, it will be easy to achieve the goals framed by the Right to Education Act, In order to meet the challenges, the nation should come together as a whole and work together to overcome these challenges.
There should be a great level of coordination among the different agencies involved in this act. Kumar, T. Female teachers are more aware than male teachers regarding the implementation of the RTE Act, Lal, K. The study found that in rural areas male teachers are aware of the RTE Act rather than female teachers and in urban area female teachers are aware of the RTE Act rather than male teachers. Majhee, M. The findings of the study reveal that the urban and rural prospective teachers ratio is high; there is a necessity to develop the awareness towards the RTE, which in turn helps them to develop the same among their students.
The study found that there are widespread variations across the state and among locations, especially among socially disadvantaged groups in Jharkhand. Overall, the literacy rates and educational indicators are still pretty low, however, there are some improvements which are reflected in the increasing enrolment levels. Enrolment of girls and even among children belonging to the backward communities, especially at the primary school level are remarkable. Considerable number of studies have been conducted on awareness of stakeholders and status of implementation of the provisions of the Act in different states.
These studies are conducted on limited area such as one block and one district etc. Most of the studies are survey in nature. The result indicates that in spite of all efforts of Central and state Government, the provisions of the RTE Act has not been implemented successfully in states. Even all stakeholders are not aware about the provisions of the Act and their roles and responsibilities for implementation.
It is also observed that few researchers have attempted to study implementation of the Act in Jharkhand covering entire state. Conclusion In the Chapter-I, the investigator focus on importance of Elementary education from points of view of different committee and commissions, status of elementary education India and Jharkhand, the background of the RTE Act and their Major provisions.
The investigator has also reviewed the related studies on the different aspects of the RTE Act for setting a base for the present study. The details of rationale, objectives and methods are presented in the chapter-II. The methodology has been decided as per the objectives and nature of study. The investigator has given a detailed account of need of the project, objectives, scope of the project, method, sample, tools and process of data collection and techniques of data analysis in the following pages.
The share of Scheduled Castes is lower at 12 percent but records very high poverty levels among both the Scheduled Castes and Tribes. The SCs and STs dependence on agriculture is very high. While 84 percent of the STs are in agriculture, with a bulk of them as cultivators 53 per cent , for the SCs the share is 68 per cent, with a much lower share of cultivators only 19 per cent and a majority 47 per cent of them as agricultural labourers. The impetus on education reinforced with the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan has influenced enrolment to a substantial extent and is also reflected in the lowering child labour across the country over time.
Jharkhand is also moving in the same direction. The EDI comprises of 13 indicators for four sub-indices pertaining to access, infrastructure, teachers and outcomes. Despite the index value improving for the upper primary level schools, the rank of the state remains at the second worst after Bihar. With a view to address these issues, the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act RTE has been introduced to directly counter the problems of illiteracy, poor quality infrastructure and learning level in the elementary education.
It came into force in India with effect from 1st April The main Children with disabilities and those belonging to minority communities are also covered under the Act. Many researchers have taken interest on the RTE Act and its influence on different aspects of the elementary education.
Some of these are discussed below. Mohalik reported that Kumar and Mohalik studied the role of PRI members in elementary education: an exploratory study. Lal found that in rural areas male teachers are more aware about RTE Act than female teachers and in urban area female teachers are aware about RTE Act rather than male teachers.
Viswanat found that the Right to Education Act helps in India to achieve millennium goals and the RTE Act, helps to create awareness among school teachers, parents and community members in enhancing quality school education. Gandhi and Yadav found that there is significant difference in awareness of male and female primary school teachers working in government schools towards Mohalik found that all stakeholders are not aware about RTE Act- No school has identified out of school children in their locality.
Schools are lacking in separate toilets for boys and girls, safe drinking water, play materials, teaching learning materials, playground, boundary wall, health check up facilities and special teachers. Necessary steps required to be taken by educational authority for providing all these facilities to elementary schools. Thote, Mathew, and Rathoure found that there is a low level of awareness among primary school teachers about the RTE Act, NCERT reported that 23 states have framed the Model rules for the RTE Act , 24 states have issued notification regarding age appropriate admission, 19 states have revised the curriculum and textbook as per the Act.
Mishra reported that most of the parents are aware about the free education provided to the students of elementary schools. But many of them are not aware of the other benefits provided to the children. Head teachers are not very clear about procedures for admission laid down in the Act, such as, how to give admission to a child of above six years of age and so far not enrolled in the school; whether to give admission to a child who has no transfer certificate, etc. Trivedi reported that there is a lack of awareness among teachers and parents about the true content of the Act.
In the states local specific guidelines are prepared but there is little awareness among the stakeholders. It also stressed that the awareness of the RTE should be mandatory. The above studies indicate that majority of stakeholders are not aware about the provisions and benefits of the RTE Act and schools have not taken suitable steps for education of children as per the Act. On the other hand, no comprehensive studies available on status of implementation of the RTE Act in the state of Jharkhand.
Against this background, studying elementary education in the light of the RTE Act is highly relevant. Objectives 1. To examine the level of awareness of stakeholders about the various provisions of the RTE Act To find out the status of educational provisions at elementary level. To study the curriculum, transaction and evaluation in the light of the RTE Act The aim of the study is to find out the awareness level among different stakeholders of school, adequacy of infrastructure, teacher-pupil ratio, resources available, functions of HMs, teachers and SMC members in implementation of the RTE Act.
Considering the nature of the problem, the investigator used survey method of the study which is commonly used in educational research to study the existing condition or the phenomenon. This method was preferred because information is readily obtainable from subjects in their natural environment, concerning their views on certain issues about the implementation of the Act. Initially four districts i. East Singhbhum, Chatra, Ranchi, and Deoghar were selected randomly from four commissionaires of Further, two blocks from each district and six schools from each block were selected randomly.
The details of sample is given in table Table: 2. The lists of schools involved in the study attached in the Appendix-A. Tools The following self developed tools were used to collect data. Questionnaire for HMs This questionnaire is intended to examine the awareness about different provisions of the Act, status of the implementation of the Act with reference to children with special needs, out of school children, role of teachers and SMC members, curriculum transaction and evaluation and the major problems faced in implementing the Act.
It consist two parts; the part-1 deals with general information about the HMs and part-2 deals with specific information about the Act. It has 48 items which include types of building, availability of classroom, playground, library, HM room, ramp, toilet facilities, drinking water facilities, availability of TLM, sports materials and other thing. Section-III has three sub-sections; sub-section-I related to out of school children OSC which has 13 items related to special provisions for these children and problem faced in educating the out of school children, Sub-section- II has total 12 items which is related to the provisions for CWSN, sub—section-III has total 17 items related to the provisions for socially disadvantage section and weaker section student and problem faced for educating these children.
Section-IV has 11 items related to curriculum transaction and evaluation such as curriculum is revised or not, school implemented CCE and others. Section-V has 4 items based on the problems faced in discharging duties and responsibilities as per the Act, and suggestions for implementing the Act. The questionnaire is attached in Appendix-B. Aspects No. Questionnaire for Teachers This questionnaire is meant to examine the awareness level of teachers, role of HMs and SMC members as per the Act and the major problems faced in implementing the Act. It consists of two parts; the part-1 deals with general information about the teachers and part-2 deals with specific information about the Act.
Section-III has 4 items based on the problems faced in discharging duties and responsibilities as per the Act, and suggestions for implementing the Act. Total number of items in this questionnaire is The questionnaire is attached in Appendix-C. It consists of two parts; the part-1 deals with general information about the SMC members and part-2 deals with specific information about the Act.
Section—II related to the Role of HMs and teachers having 37 items, 14 items related to the role of teachers in school and 23 items related to the role of HMs in school. Section—III has 4 items based on the problems faced in discharging duties and responsibilities as per the Act, and suggestion for implementing the Act.
Total numbers of items in this tool is The questionnaire is attached in Appendix-D. Observation Schedule for Observing Classroom Teaching The main aim of this tool is to study the teaching learning process followed by teachers in elementary schools. The tool consists of statements based on teaching learning behaviour and activities followed by five point scales such as Never, Sometimes, Usually, Often, Very Often.
The tool was based on the four major aspects of teaching such as Introduction, Presentation, Assessment and Feedback and Teacher personality. The details of each aspect are discussed in following paragraphs. Introduction: In this aspect, the points such as gets the class settled prior to teaching, creates readiness among learners, use appropriate strategy for introducing the topic and last is states the topic before teaching etc are covered.
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The committee is supposed to meet once in two months for reviewing school functioning. But that has not happened in the past two years because all local bodies in the state remained headless between August and August as elections did not take place due to reservation issues. Experts say the figure is inflated.
Tribal-dominated Yavatmal district is one of the few places in Maharashtra where SMCs seem to have made an impact. Last year, SMC members of Kodpha Khindi village in the block demolished an under-constructed kitchen shed of the school, citing poor construction and asked the contractor to rebuild it under their supervision.
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But lately they are facing alienation. SMC members allege teachers try to retain control over decision-making and implementation of infrastructure projects.
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The upper primary school of Jhari village lacks electricity, water, toilets and kitchen shed. SMCs that are strong and have received good training have made an impact in the school administration, says Yogini Dolke, who heads Yavatmal-based non-profit Srujan. But only three to four per cent SMCs are actually active, she adds. Most members are not aware that they can actually intervene in the school functioning.
District education officer of Yavatmal, Siddheswar Chandekar, says all SMCs receive training at the beginning of the school session, but this is not sufficient.
Constitution of India | HAQ : Centre for Child Rights
Objective lost SMC was to involve parents in development and management of school and set up an accountability system. There is a wide variation in state-level data, which ranges from five per cent in Maharashtra to 99 per cent in Himachal Pradesh. To do its job, SMCs get funds under three categories: school development, maintenance and teaching learning material. In , only 74 per cent schools received all the three grants.
This is an improvement over the previous year when 69 per cent schools received the grants.
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Besides, close to 30 per cent SMCs are yet to open a bank account to receive the fund. The decision of SMCs is hardly accepted by the district level authority, which takes the final decision related to RTE. They often have pre-filled formats that hardly include SMC decisions, says Aiyar. Caught unprepared The scope of RTE is gigantic. It covers some 1. So far, only five per cent schools in the country meet RTE provisions.
In strict legal terms, recognition to the rest 95 per cent schools should have been withdrawn. But this is not possible in a country that does not have enough schools to meet the demand. Of these, 11, need primary schools. Most of these habitations are in poor states with high illiteracy rate, such as Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand and Odisha. The PMO data shows that eight million children or 4. Though the DISE report shows that the enrolment has increased by 1.
The enrolment in government primary schools has decreased by 2. That of girl children has increased from 5. If there was no school within a kilometre of the habitation, it should have opened one. But this requires heavy investment in infrastructure and training some one million teachers. The government was given three years for doing all this. The second major challenge is to make available the massive amount of funds required to implement the programme.
The rest has to be shared between the Centre and state on ratio for north-eastern states. The Centre has allocated just Rs 27, crore for State governments are no better. The direct expenditure on child education is meager. According to the Centre for Policy Research, only 12 per cent of the overall education budget is spent on children. During , 54 per cent schools received their grants in November, thus, leading to erratic implementation of RTE.
But it is imperative that the funds reach areas where they are needed most. Consider Bihar. The Centre rejected its plea. Now, to meet RTE goals, the government has opened schools everywhere but without any infrastructure, says Amardeep Sinha, principal secretary, education.
With limited budget, the state is now caught in the classic chicken and egg dilemma: whether it should first provide infrastructure to students or appoint trained teachers to offer quality education. Bihar needs to construct , classrooms in nearly 70, schools. It also needs to appoint , teachers to meet the RTE criterion of one teacher for 30 pupils. But the state does not have enough institutions to train teachers. Teachers missing Lack of trained teachers is the next big challenge for implementation of RTE.
Section 23 2 of the Act says all teachers in elementary schools should be trained by As of now, one in every five teachers is not properly qualified. Though 83 per cent of government teachers are trained, 60 per cent of them are on contract basis, states the DISE report. After that, his right to education is subject to the limits of economic capacity and development of the state.
Thus, the Court overruled its earlier judgement which declared that there was a fundamental right to education up to any level including professional education like medicine and engineering. This Act says that every child has a right to be provided full time elementary education of satisfactory and equitable quality in a formal school which satisfies certain essential norms and standards.
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